Highly Recommended
Like all our Science Reasoning Center activities, the completion of the Digitizing Data activity requires that a student use provided information about a phenomenon, experiment, or data presentation to answer questions. This information is accessible by tapping on the small thumbnails found on the bottom right of every question. However, it may be considerably easier to have a printed copy of this information or to display the information in a separate browser window. You can access this information from this page

The Standards
Digitizing Data is an NGSS-inspired task that addresses the manner in which data (such as graphic images) can be digitized and the issues associated with the transmitting, receiving, and storage of digital data. Collectively, the three parts of the task were designed to address the following NGSS performance expectation:

HS-PS4-2:
Evaluate questions about the advantages of using digital transmission and storage of information.

As a whole, the questions in this task address a wide collection of disciplinary core idea (DCI), crosscutting concepts (CCC), and science and engineering practices (SEP). There are 28 questions organized into 10 Question Groups and spread across the three activities. Each question is either a 2D or (preferrably) a 3D question. That is, the task of answering the question requires that the student utilize at least two of the three dimensions of the NGSS science standards - a DCI, a CCC, and/or an SEP.

The following DCI, SEPs, and CCCs are addressed at some point within Digitizing Data:

DCI:  PS4.A: Properties of Waves
Information can be digitized (e.g., a picture stored as the values of an array of pixels); in this form, it can be stored reliably in computer memory and sent over long distances as a series of wave pulses.

SEP 1.7: Asking Questions and Defining Problems
Ask and/or evaluate questions that challenge the premise(s) of an argument, the interpretation of a data set, or the suitability of a design.

SEP 6.3: Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
Apply scientific ideas, principles, and/or evidence to provide an explanation of phenomena and solve design problems, taking into account possible unanticipated effects.

SEP 8.4: Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
Evaluate the validity and reliability of and/or synthesize multiple claims, methods, and/or designs that appear in scientific and technical texts or media reports, verifying the data when possible.

CCC 6.2Structure and Function
The functions and properties of natural and designed objects and systems can be inferred from their overall structure and the way their components are shaped.

CCC 7.2Stability and Change
Systems can be designed for greater or lesser stability.

Here is our NGSS-based analysis of each individual activity of the Digitizing Data Science Reasoning task. The core ideas, crosscutting concepts, and science and engineering practices that we reference in our analysis are numbered for convenience. You can cross-reference the specific notations that we have used with the listings found on the following pages:

#### Part 1: Digital Images

This activity consists of a paragraph completion question involving the filling in of 10 blanks using words and phrases from a word bank. Feedback is immediate and students have an opportunity to correct their answers. Students earn the Trophy for this activity once they accurately complete the paragraph.

NGSS Claim Statement: Explain how the structure of digitized information can be used to transmit and store data reliably and efficiently.

 Target DCI(s) Target SEP(s) Target CCC(s) Properties of Waves  PS4.A Information can be digitized (e.g., a picture stored as the values of an array of pixels); in this form, it can be stored reliably in computer memory and sent over long distances as a series of wave pulses. Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions SEP 6.3 Apply scientific ideas, principles, and/or evidence to provide an explanation of phenomena and solve design problems, taking into account possible unanticipated effects. Structure and Function CCC 6.2 The functions and properties of natural and designed objects and systems can be inferred from their overall structure and the way their components are shaped.

#### Part 2: Digital Transmission and Storage

This activity consists of 16 multiple-select questions organized into four Question Groups. The questions target student understanding of the advantages, disadvantages, and possible improvements associated with the digital transmission and storage of information.  Students earn the Trophy for this activity once they demonstrate mastery on all four Question Groups.

NGSS Claim StatementEvaluate the validity of a claim regarding the advantages and disadvantages of transmitting and storing data digitally and how this increases the stability of data.

 Target DCI(s) Target SEP(s) Target CCC(s) Properties of Waves  PS4.A Information can be digitized (e.g., a picture stored as the values of an array of pixels); in this form, it can be stored reliably in computer memory and sent over long distances as a series of wave pulses. Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information SEP 8.4 Evaluate the validity and reliability of and/or synthesize multiple claims, methods, and/or designs that appear in scientific and technical texts or media reports, verifying the data when possible. Stability and Change CCC 7.2 Systems can be designed for greater or lesser stability.

#### Part 3: Evaluating Questions

This activity consists of 10 multiple choice questions organized into five Question Groups. The questions target student ability to identify questions as being empirically testable or not testable by means of an experiment.  Students earn the Trophy for this activity once they demonstrate mastery on all five Question Groups.

NGSS Claim StatementEvaluate the empirical nature of questions concerning the advantages of using digital transmission and storage of information.

 Target DCI(s) Target SEP(s) Target CCC(s) Properties of Waves  PS4.A Information can be digitized (e.g., a picture stored as the values of an array of pixels); in this form, it can be stored reliably in computer memory and sent over long distances as a series of wave pulses. Asking Questions and Defining Problems SEP 1.7 Ask and/or evaluate questions that challenge the premise(s) of an argument, the interpretation of a data set, or the suitability of a design. Stability and Change CCC 7.2 Systems can be designed for greater or lesser stability.